» Home

appeared in: The Temporalization of Time. Basic Tendencies in Modern Debate on Time in Philosophy and Science, Lanham and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Mike Sandbothe

The Temporalization of Time

Basic Tendencies in Modern Debate on Time in Philosophy and Science

Translated by Andrew Inkpin



Introduction -page 3-

Chapter I. The Objective Temporalization of Time in Physics -page 7-

  1. The Concept of Reversible Time as the Fundament of Classical Thermodynamics -page 7-
  2. The Introduction of Irreversible Time in Physics: On the Emergence and Scientific Establishment of Thermodynamics -page 16-
    1. The Emergence of Thermodynamics in the 19th Century -page 18-
    2. The Scientific Establishment of Thermodynamics and the Debate Concerning the Time- theoretical Assumptions of Dynamics -page 34-
  3. The Self-organization of Time and Prigogine’s Theory of Dissipative Structures -page 45-
    1. Linear Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Creativity of the Arrow of Time -page 46-
    2. Non-linear Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Temporality of Dissipative Structures -page 50-
  4. The Objective Temporalization of Time in Physics and the Concept of Irreversible Time -page 61-

Chapter II. The Reflexive Temporalization of Time in Philosophy -page 65-

  1. Kant’s Theory of Time as the Starting Point of the Reflexive Temporalization Tendency -page 65-
  2. Between the Temporalization and Essentialization of Time: Bergson and Husserl -page 71-
    1. Bergson, Husserl and Heidegger in Context -page 72-
    2. Bergson’s Theory of Pure Duration -page 76-
    3. Husserl’s Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time -page 80-
  3. The Reflexive Temporalization of Time in Heidegger’s Analysis of Temporality -page 86-
    1. Fundamental Ontology and the Analysis of Dasein: the Pragmatic Approach to its Interpretation -page 86-
    2. On the Systematic Position of the Problem of Time within the Architectonics of Being and Time -page 93-
    3. Pragmatic Interpretation of Heidegger’s Analysis of Temporality -page 98-
  4. The Reflexive Temporalization Tendency and its Relation to Objective Temporalization -page 109-

Quoted Literature -page 116-

- 3 -


In the current situation, one characterized by a plurality of heterogeneous time concepts, cross- disciplinary discussion about the problem of time assumes particular importance.1 The central problem for current debate on time is to relate the varying concepts of time developed in individual scientific disciplines both to one another and to everyday experience (cf. Baumgartner, 1993; Burger, 1993; Le Poidevin/McBeath, 1993; Mainzer, 1996; Gimmler/Sandbothe/Zimmerli, 1997; Baert, 1999).2 In the attempt to solve this task different approaches can be distinguished. They are embedded in two lines of development, to be outlined below, which determine current time theory.

The first basic tendency in contemporary philosophy of time may be described as the tendency to unify and to universalize our understanding of time. The protagonists of this tendency are convinced that the aspect of time is to be considered a new Archimedean point, unifying our everyday experience of self and the world with scientific theories about humankind and nature. This point of unity, they contend further, has been highlighted over and over again in philosophy (for instance by von Baader, Schelling, Bergson, Whitehead or Heidegger), but has been ignored for far too long by science and technology. It was not until the second half of this century that a global time concept was developed and mathematically operationalized at the interface between physics, chemistry and biology within the framework of the so-called theories of ‘self-organization’ (cf. Griffin, 1986 and Krohn/Küppers/Nowotny, 1990). According to the proponents of the unification tendency, this new conception of time enables the old duality between natural time and historical time to be overcome and marks the beginning of the resolution of the conflict between physical and philosophical thinking about time which had been characteristic of time theories at the start of the 20th century. In this sense the German philosopher of time and history Hermann Lübbe observed in his book In the Course of Time ‘that even the temporal structure of historicality, which, according to Heidegger and the hermeneutic theory that followed him, results exclusively from the subject’s relationship to itself and its constituting of meaning, is in reality a structure indifferent to subject matter, belonging to all open and dynamic systems’ (Lübbe, 1992, p. 30).

- 4 -

Lübbe’s convergence theorem can draw support from the deliberations of one of the founders of self-organization theory. Already in 1973, the Nobel prize-winning physicist and chemist Ilya Prigogine noted with his theory of irreversible structures in mind: ‘Whatever the future of these ideas, it seems to me that the dialogue between physics and natural philosophy can begin on a new basis. I don't think that I can exaggerate by stating that the problem of time marks specifically the divorce between physics on one side, psychology and epistemology on the other. (...). We see that physics is starting to overcome these barriers’ (Prigogine, 1973, p. 590f.). Prigogine further developed the specific signature of the current debate on time in the closing chapter of his 1984 revision to the German edition of Being and Becoming:3 ‘It is remarkable to recognize the extent to which some of the recent results [of natural science, MS] had been anticipated by philosophers like Bergson, Whitehead and Heidegger. The main difference consists of the fact that they could reach such conclusions only in contrast to natural science, whereas we are now observing that these insights emerge so to speak from scientific research’ (Prigogine, 1988, p. 262). And Prigogine’s convergence theorem is found again, more precisely formulated, in an essay he published together with Serge Pahaut in 1988: ‘Both classical and relativistic or quantum physics concentrated on time considered as motion. It seemed as if time as qualitative change lie outside its horizon. From this there results on one side the temptation, which we meet even with Einstein, to deny the existence of time or history, and on the other side there result from this the objections of philosophers like Bergson, Whitehead, Husserl or Heidegger, who see the pauper’s oath of the scientific method in this denial. Strangely enough we can today set our sights on the possibility of a synthesis linking these two aspects of time with each other’ (Prigogine/Pahaut, 1985, p. 26).

The second line of development in contemporary theory of time is best seen when one reconsiders the assumptions common to the advocates of the unification and universalization tendency. Time is considered by them to be a uniform universal base structure which disavows itself of historical contingency and cultural change. Thus Lübbe and Prigogine consider the ‘ontological universality of

- 5 -

the temporality aspect’ (Lübbe, 1992, p. 31) of self-organization’s ‘participatory universe’ (Prigogine/Stengers, 1981, pp. 267ff., 287f.; cf. also Wheeler, 1979, pp. 407ff.) to be evident. Advocates of the second basic tendency, a tendency to historize and relativize time, proceed from the basic idea that the role played by time in human understanding of self and the world is one aspect of a system of practical and technical habits which diverges between cultures and changes within a culture in contingent conditions over history.

This approach is advocated with particular refinement by the American pragmatist Richard Rorty. The basic premise of Rorty’s thinking is ‘that a belief can still regulate action, can still be thought worth dying for, among people who are quite aware that this belief is caused by nothing deeper than contingent historical circumstances’ (Rorty, 1989, p. 189). According to Rorty radically temporal thinking must do away with the theologically founded conception that time and eternity come together in man (Rorty, 1995). Instead Rorty demands ‘that we [should] try to get to the point where we no longer worship anything, where we treat nothing as a quasi divinity, where we treat everything - our language, our conscience, our community - as a product of time and chance’ (Rorty, 1989, p. 22). According to Rorty we will succeed in this only when we no longer mystify time, but understand it in a radically reflexive way as being a product of chance (Gimmler/Sandbothe/Zimmerli, 1997, pp. 1-78; cf. Janich, 1996).

The interrelations between the different concepts of time currently being discussed in the sciences, as well as the question of the relationship between academic and everyday perceptions of time, are to be dealt with pragmatically on the basis of the historization tendency advocated by Rorty. Convergence between different vocabularies of time is, from Rorty’s perspective, by no means proof of an intrinsic coincidence between natural and historical time. The mathematical and technological operationalization and successful functionalization of the vocabulary of time that until now had served us only for the purposes of self-description indicates only the historical transformability, inner flexibility and contextual boundness even of such highly attuned vocabularies as those of physics, mathematics or logic. The different vocabularies we make use of for differing purposes and in varying contexts are subject to change over time, through which they are respectively related to and distinguished from one another in a varying and contingent way in different historical situations.

The radical temporalization of time expressed in these deliberations had already been outlined in

- 6 -

literature by the Austrian novelist Robert Musil. In his novel The Man without Qualities he writes, ‘The train of events is a train unrolling its rails ahead of itself. The river of time is a river sweeping its banks along with it. The traveller moves about on a solid floor between solid walls; but the floor and the walls are being moved along too, imperceptibly, and yet in very lively fashion, by the movements that his fellow-travellers make’ (Musil, 1954, p. 174).4 Within modern philosophy the inner reflexivity of the modern apprehension of time, articulated here by Musil, was founded by Martin Heidegger. In the following considerations the developmental lines highlighted in current theory of time will be set in the context of two basic tendencies that pervade modernity’s thinking on time altogether. These basic tendencies of the modern time debate can be described as two ways of temporalizing time (cf. Sandbothe, 1994, 1997). The objective temporalization of time in physics contrasts with the reflexive temporalization of time in philosophy.

The different ways of temporalizing time appear with particular clarity in the time theories of Martin Heidegger and Ilya Prigogine which form the focus of the present work. Both authors have been prominent advocates of pioneering concepts of time in the 20th century. The philosophical analysis of temporality presented by Heidegger in his early main work Being and Time (1927) may be considered the Magna Carta of the philosophy of time in the 20th century. The Nobel Prize winning chemico-physical research carried out by Prigogine in the second half of the century has, from the side of thermodynamics, destabilized the time concepts in the physical disciplines of dynamics, quantum theory and cosmology. The present work historically situates Heidegger’s and Prigogine’s time concepts in the context of the basic tendencies of modern debate on time and uses this basis to relate them to one another systematically. The physical temporalization of time is examined as a historical process taking place at the object level of natural scientific research and culminating in Prigogine’s work. The reflexive temporalization of time in philosophy is set alongside the objective temporalization of time in physics as a set of intellectual instruments allowing the objective understanding of time of physics to be critically reinterpreted.

- 116 -

Quoted Literature

Alembert, Jean le Rond d’ (1966): Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, vol. 4, Stuttgart, Frommann (original: Paris 1754)

Andronov, Aleksandr A. and Chaikin, Semen E. (1949): Theory of Oscillations, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Apel, Karl-Otto (1973): Transformation der Philosophie, 2 vols, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp.

Apel, Karl-Otto (1991): Wittgenstein und Heidegger. Kritische Wiederholung und Ergänzung eines Vergleichs, in: Brian McGuinness, Jürgen Habermas et al., Der Löwe spricht ... und wir können ihn nicht verstehen, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp, pp. 27-68.

Aristotle (1984a): The Physics, in: The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. 1, ed. Jonathan Barnes, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 315-446.

Aristotle (1984b): On the Heavens, in: The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. 1, ed. Jonathan Barnes, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp 447-511.

Atkins, Peter William (1984): The Second Law, New York, W.H. Freeman and Company.

Bachelard, Gaston (1975): La formation de l’esprit scientifique. Contribution à une psychoanalyse de la connaissance objective, Paris, Vrin (original edition: Paris 1938).

Baert, Patrick (ed.) (1999): Time in Modern Intellectual Thought, Amsterdam/New York, Elsevier.

Bast, Rainer A. (1986): Ist Heideggers 'Sein und Zeit' ein patchwork?, in: Information Philosophie, 4, October, pp. 18-30.

Baumgartner, Hans-Michael (ed.) (1993): Das Rätsel der Zeit. Philosophische Analysen, Freiburg/Munich, Alber.

Belousov, Boris Pawlowitsch (1987a): Eine periodische Reaktion und ihr Mechanismus, in: Kuhnert/Niedersen, 1987, pp. 71-72 (original: Moscow 1959).

Belousov, Boris Pawlowitsch (1987b): Eine periodische Reaktion und ihr Mechanismus, in: Kuhnert/Niedersen, 1987, pp. 73-82 (Manuscript of 1951, first published: Gorki 1981).

Bénard, Henri (1900): Les tourbillons cellulaires dans une nappe liquide, in: Revue Generale Sciences Pures et Appliques, vol. 12, Paris, pp. 1261-1271.

Bergson, Henri (1910): Time and Free Will, New York, MacMillan Co. (French original, entitled ‘Essai sur les données immediates de la conscience’, Paris 1889).

- 117 -

Bergson, Henri (1913): An Introduction to Metaphysics, London, MacMillan and Co. (French original: Paris 1903).

Bergson, Henri (1988): Matter and Memory, trans. Nancy Margaret Paul and W. Scott Palmer, New York, Zone Books.

Bergson, Henri (1989): Zeit und Freiheit, Frankfurt a.M., Athenäum.

Bernet, Rudolf (1985): Editorischer Bericht, in: Edmund Husserl, Texte zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins (1893-1917), ed. and introduced by Rudolf Bernet, Hamburg, Meiner, pp. LXIX-LXXIII.

Bieri, Peter (1972): Zeit und Zeiterfahrung. Exposition eines Problembereichs, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp.

Boehm, Rudolf (1966): Einleitung des Herausgebers, in: E.Husserl, Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins, Husserliana, vol. 10, pp. XIII-XLIII, Den Haag, Martinus Nijhoff.

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1966a): Further Studies on the Therman Equilibrium of Gas Molecules, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 88-175 [originally in: Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, vol. 66, 1872, pp. 275- 370].

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1966b): On the Relation of a General Mechanical Theorem to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 188-193 [originally in: Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Mathematische-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, vol. 75, 1877, pp. 67-73].

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1966c): Reply to Zermelo’s Remarks in the Theory of Heat, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 218-228 [originally in: Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 57, 1896, pp.773-784].

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1966d): On Zermelo’s Paper ‘On the Mechanical Explanation of Irreversible Processes’, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 238-245 [originally in: Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol 60, 1897, pp. 392ff].

Boltzmann, Ludwig (1980): Über die mechanische Bedeutung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik, in: Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Mathem.-Natwiss. Klasse, vol. 53, 1866, pp. 195-220; quoted from reprint in: Kleinert, 1980, pp. 271-296.

Brandom, Robert (1983): Heidegger’s Categories in Being and Time, in: Monist, 60 (1983), pp. 387-409.

Bray, William (1921): Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 43, pp. 1262ff.

Brough, John B. (1991): Translator’s Introduction, in: Husserl (1991), pp. xi-lvii.

- 118 -

Brush, Stephen G. (ed.) (1966): Kinetic Theory, vol. 2, Irreversible Processes, Oxford, Pergamon.

Brush, Stephen G. (1976): The Kind of Motion we Call Heat. A History of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the 19th Century, 2 vols, Amsterdam/New York/Oxford, North Holland Personal Library.

Burger, Paul (1993): Die Einheit der Zeit und die Vielheit der Zeiten. Zur Aktualität des Zeiträtsels, Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann.

Cardwell, Donald Stephen Lowell (1971): From Watt to Clausius. The rise of thermodynamics in the early industrial age, London, Heinemann.

Carnot, Sadi (1986): Reflexions on the Motive Power of Fire, trans. and ed. by Robert Fox, New York, Lilian Barber Press (French original: Paris 1824).

Cassirer, Ernst (1957): The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. 3, The Phenomenology of Knowledge, New Haven/London, Yale University Press.

Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1961): Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Clausius, Rudolf (1864): Über eine veränderte Form des zweiten Hauptsatzes der mechanischen Wärmetheorie, in: ders., Abhandlungen über die mechanische Wärmetheorie, vol. 1, Brunswick, Vieweg (original in: Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 93, Dec. 1854, pp. 481-506).

Clausius, Rudolf (1865): Über verschiedene für die Anwendung bequeme Formen der Hauptgleichungen der mechanischen Wärmetheorie, in: Vierteljahrsschrift der naturforschenden Gesellschaft (Zurich), vol. 10, pp. 1-59.

Clausius, Rudolf (1887): Discussionen über die vorstehend entwickelte Form der mechanischen Wärmetheorie und ihre Begründung, in: ders., Die mechanische Wärmetheorie, vol. 1, Brunswick, Vieweg.

Clausius, Rudolf (1921): Über die bewegende Kraft der Wärme und die Gesetze, welche sich daraus für die Wärmelehre selbst ableiten lassen, Leipzig, Akademische Verlags-Gesellschaft (original in: Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 79, 1850, March/April, pp. 368-397 and pp. 500-524).

Comte, August (1974): The Positive Philosophy, New York, Ams Press (French original: Cours de philosophie positive, 6 vols, Paris 1830-1842).

Conen, Paul F. (1964): Die Zeittheorie des Aristoteles, Munich, Beck.

Coveney, Peter / Highfield, Roger (1990): The Arrow of Time, London, Allen.

Cramer, Friedrich / Kaempfer, Wolfgang (1990): Der Zeitbaum, in: Der Komet. Almanach der Anderen Bibliothek auf das Jahr 1991, ed. Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Frankfurt a.M., Insel, pp. 8-190.

- 119 -

Cramer, Friedrich (1993): Der Zeitbaum. Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Zeittheorie, Frankfurt a.M., Insel.

Davies, Paul (1974): The Physics of Time Asymmetry, Berkely/Los Angeles.

Davies, Paul (1988): The Cosmic Blueprint: New Discoveries in Nature’s Creative Ability to Order the Universe, New York: Simon & Schuster.

Deleuze, Gilles (1988): Bergsonism, New York, Zone Books (French original: Paris 1966).

Derrida, Jacques (1992): Given Time I, Counterfeit Money, Chicago, University of Chicago Press (French original: Paris 1991)

Derrida, Jacques (1993): La voix et la phénomène. Introduction au problème du signe dans la phénoménologie de Husserl, Saint Germain, Quadrige.

Donder, Théophile de / Rysselberghe, Pierre van (1936): Thermodynamic Theory of Affinity. A Book of Principles, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

Düsing, Klaus (1980): Objektive und subjektive Zeit. Untersuchungen zu Kants Zeittheorie und zu ihrer modernen kritischen Rezeption, in: Kant-Studien, 71, pp. 1-34.

Düsing, Klaus (1992): Selbstbewußtseinsmodelle. Apperzeption und Zeitbewußtsein in Heideggers Auseinandersetzung mit Kant, in: Zeiterfahrung und Personalität, ed. Forum für Philosophie Bad Homburg, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp, pp. 89-122.

Dummett, Michael (1960): A Defense of McTaggart’s Proof of the Unreality of Time, in: Philosophical Review, vol. 69, pp. 497-504.

Eddington, Arthur (1943): The Nature of the Physical World, New York, MacMillan (originally: New York/Cambridge 1928).

Eigen, Manfred (1984): Evolution und Zeitlichkeit, in: Die Erfahrung der Zeit, ed. Christian Link, Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, pp. 215-237.

Ekeland, Ivar (1984): Le calcul, l’impréva, Paris, Editions de Seuil.

Elkana, Yehuda (1974): The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy, Cambridge (Mass.), Harvard University Press.

Epstein, Irving R. / Kustin, Kenneth et al. (1989): Oszillierende chemische Reaktionen, in: Chaos und Fraktale, eds James P. Crutchfield, Doyne J. Farmer et al., Heidelberg, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, pp. 72-81.

Flasch, Kurt (1993): Was ist Zeit? Augustinus von Hippo. Das XI. Buch der Confessiones. Historisch-philosophische Studie. Text-Übersetzung-Kommentar, Frankfurt a.M., Klostermann.

- 120 -

Gadamer, Hans-Georg (1972): Über leere und erfüllte Zeit, in: Kleine Schriften, vol. 3, Tübingen, Mohr, pp. 221-236 (reprinted in: Zimmerli/Sandbothe, 1993, pp. 281-198).

Galilei, Galileo (1914): Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, New York, MacMillan (original: Leiden 1638).

Gent, Werner (1962): Die Philosophie des Raumes und der Zeit. Historische, kritische und analytische Untersuchungen, 2 vols, Hildesheim, Olms (original: Bonn 1926-28).

Gent, Werner (1965): Das Problem der Zeit. Eine historische und systematische Untersuchung, Hildesheim, Olms (original: Frankfurt a.M. 1934).

Gethmann, Carl Friedrich (1974): Verstehen und Auslegung. Das Methodenproblem in der Philosophie Martin Heideggers, Bonn, Bouvier.

Gethmann, Carl Friedrich (1993): Dasein: Erkennen und Handeln. Heidegger im phänomenologischen Kontext, Berlin/New York, de Gruyter.

Gibbs, Josiah Willard (1902): Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, New York, C. Scribner’s sons.

Gimmler, Antje / Sandbothe, Mike / Zimmerli, Walther Ch. (1997): Die Wiederentdeckung der Zeit. Reflexionen-Analysen-Konzepte, Darmstadt, Primus and Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Giroux, Laurent (1971): Durée Pure et Temporalité. Bergson et Heidegger, Montréal, Bellarmin.

Gödel, Kurt (1970): A Remark About the Relationship Between Relativity Theory and Idealistic Philosophy, in: Albert Einstein. Philosopher - Scientist, ed. by Paul Arthur Schilpp, The Library of Living Philosophers, vol. 7, La Salle (Illinois), Open Court, 557-562 (first published 1949).

Goodman, Nelson (1984): Ways of Worldmaking, Indianapolis, Hackett.

Griffin, David Ray (1986) (ed.): Physics and the Ultimate Significance of Time. Bohm, Prigogine and Process Philosophy, New York.

Grünbaum, Adolf (1973): Philosphical Problems of Space and Time. Second enlarged Edition, Dordrecht, Reidel (original: New York 1963).

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1974): Lectures on the History of Philosophy, vol. 3, New York, Humanities (German original: Berlin 1832)

Heidegger, Martin (1976): Logik - Die Frage nach der Wahrheit, in: Gesamtausgabe, II. Abteilung: Vorlesungen 1923-1944, vol. 21, Frankfurt a.M., Klostermann.

Heidegger, Martin (1977): Phänomenologische Interpretation von Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft, in: Gesamtausgabe. II. Abteilung: Vorlesungen 1923-1944, vol. 25, Frankfurt a.M., Klostermann.

- 121 -

Heidegger, Martin (1977b): ‘The Age of the World Picture’, in: The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, New York, Harper and Row, pp. 115-154.

Heidegger, Martin (1982): The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, trans. Albert Hofstadter, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1982 (German original first published in: Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe, II. Abteilung: Vorlesungen 1923-1944, vol. 24, Frankfurt/Main, Klostermann, 1975)

Heidegger, Martin (1984): The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic, Bloomington, Indiana University Press (German original: Frankfurt/Main 1978).

Heidegger, Martin (1990): Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, trans. Richard Taft, Bloomington, Indiana University Press (German original: Bonn 1929).

Heidegger, Martin (1992): The Concept of Time, trans. William McNeill, Oxford and Cambridge (Mass.), Blackwell (German original first published: Tübingen 1989).

Heidegger, Martin (1993): Being and Time, trans. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson, Oxford and Cambridge (Mass.), Blackwell (first published 1962; German original first published: Tübingen 1927).

Helmholtz, Hermann von (1962): ‘On the Interaction of Natural Forces’, in: Helmholtz, Popular Scientific Lectures, New York, Dover, pp. 59-92.

Helmholtz, Hermann von (1884): Vorträge und Reden, vol. 1, Brunswick, Vieweg.

Hönigswald, Richard (1965): Die Grundlagen der Denkpsychologie. Studien und Analysen, Stuttgart, Teubner (original: Leipzig 1925).

Hörning, Karl H. / Gerhardt, Anette / Michailow, Matthias (ed.) (1995): Time Pioneers. Flexible Working Time and New Lifestyles, Cambridge, Polity (German original: Frankfurt a.M. 1990).

Hörning, Karl H. / Ahrens, Daniela / Gerhard, Anette (ed.) (1997): Zeitpraktiken. Experimentierfelder der Spätmoderne, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp.

Hopf, Eberhard (1942): in: Berichte der Math.- Phys. Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol. 94, Leipzig, S.1 ff.

Husserl, Edmund (1991): On the Phenomenology of the Conciousness of Internal Time, Dordrecht/Boston/London, Kluwer.

Janich, Peter (1996): Die Konstitution der Zeit durch Handeln und Reden, in: Kodikas/Code. Ars Semeiotica, 19, no. 1-2, pp. 133-147.

Jantsch, Erich (1989): The Self-Organizing Universe. Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution, Oxford/New York, Pergamon.

- 122 -

Jetschke, Gottfried (1989): Mathematik der Selbstorganisation. Quantitative Theorie deterministischer und stochastischer dynamischer Systeme, Brunswick, Vieweg.

John, Vincenz (1968): Geschichte der Statistik. Ein quellenmäßiges Handbuch für den akademischen Gebrauch wie für den Selbstunterricht, Erster Teil, Wiesbaden, Sändig (original: Stuttgart 1884).

Jones, Bence (1870): The Life and Letters of Faraday, 2 vols, London, Longmans, Green and Co..

Kaempfer, Wolfgang (1991): Die Zeit und die Uhren. Mit einem Beitrag von Dietmar Kamper, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp.

Kamper, Dietmar (1991): Umgang mit der Zeit. Paradoxe Wiederholungen, in: Kaempfer, 1991, pp. 245-351.

Kant, Immanuel (1985): Critique of Pure Reason, trans. Norman Kemp Smith, London, Macmillan (first published: London 1929; German original first published: Riga 1781[A]; 1787[B]).

Kleinert, Andreas (1980): Physik im neunzehnten Jahrhundert, Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Kierkegaard, Sören (1981): Vier erbauliche Reden 1844. Drei Reden bei erdachten Gelegenheiten 1845, in: Gesammelte Werke, eds Emanuel Hirsch and Hayo Gerdes, Gütersloh, Gütersloher Verlagshaus Mohn.

Kierkegaard, Sören (1987): Fear and Trembling. Edited and translated with introduction and notes by Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong, Princeton, Princeton University Press (Danish original first published: Copenhagen 1843).

Koyré, Alexandre (1978): Galileo Studies, Hassocks, Harvester Press (French original: Paris: 1939)

Kroes, Peter (1982): Order and Irreversibility, in: Nature and System, 4, pp. 115-129.

Kroes, Peter (1985): Time: Its Structure and Role in Physical Theories, Dordrecht, Reidel.

Krohn, Wolfgang / Küppers, Günter / Nowotny, Helga (ed.) (1990): Selforganization - Portrait of a Scientific Revolution, Dordrecht/Boston/London, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Kuhn, Thomas S. (1969): Energy Conservation as an Example of Simultaneous Discovery, in: Critical Problems in the History of Science, ed. Marshal Clagett, Madison, Milwaukee/London, University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 321-356.

Kuhnert, Lothar / Niedersen, Uwe (ed.) (1987): Selbstorganisation chemischer Strukturen. Arbeiten von F. F. Runge, R. E. Liesegang, B. P. Belousov und A. M. Zhabontinsky, Leipzig, Geest und Portig.

- 123 -

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1981): New Essays on Human Understanding, Cambridge/New York, Cambridge University Press (French original: Amsterdam/Leipzig 1765).

Le Poidevin, Robin / McBeath, Murray (1993): The Philosophy of Time, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Loschmidt, Josef (1876): Über den Zustand des Wärmegleichgewichts eines Systems von Körpern mit Rücksicht auf die Schwerkraft, in: Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Mathem.-Natwiss. Klasse, 73, pp. 128-142.

Lübbe, Hermann (1992): Im Zug der Zeit. Verkürzter Aufenthalt in der Gegenwart, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, Springer.

Lyotard, Jean-François (1991): The Inhuman. Reflections on Time, Cambridge, Polity (French original: Paris 1988).

Mach, Ernst (1986): Principles of the Theory of Heat, Dordrecht, Reidel (German original: Leipzig 1919).

Mainzer, Klaus (1996): Zeit. Von der Urzeit zur Computerzeit, Munich, Beck.

Mareschal, M. / Kestemont, E. (1987): Experimental Evidence for Convective Rolls in Finite Two- Dimensional Molecular Models, in: Journal of Statistical Physics, 48, pp. 1187ff.

Martin, Gottfried (1955): Kant’s Metaphysics and Theory of Science, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Maxwell, James Clerk (1860): Illustrations of the dynamical theory of gases, in: Philosophical Magazine, 19, 1860, pp. 19-32 and 20, 1860, pp. 21-37.

Maxwell, James Clerk (1871): Theory of Heat, New York, Appleton.

McTaggart, John M.E. (1908): The Unreality of Time, in: Mind, 17, pp. 457-474.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1962): Phenomenology of Perception, London, Routledge (French original: Paris, 1945).

Meyer, Rudolf W. (1982): Bergson in Deutschland. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Zeitauffassung, in: Studien zum Zeitproblem in der Philosophie des 20. Jahrhunderts mit Beiträgen von R.W.Meyer, E.W.Orth, R.Boehm u. W.Krewani, Freiburg/Munich, Alber.

Minkowski, Eugène (1970): Lived Time, Phenomenological and Psychopathological Studies, Evanston, Northwestern University Press.

Morin, Harald (1951): Wille und Zeit in Schopenhauers Philosophie, in: Theorie, 17, pp. 155-175.

- 124 -

Moscovici, Serge (1977): Essai sur l’histoire humaine de la nature, Paris, Flammarion (original: Paris 1968).

Most, Otto J. (1977): Zeitliches und Ewiges in der Philosophie Nietzsches und Schopenhauers, Frankfurt a.M., Klostermann.

Musil, Robert (1954): The Man without Qualities, vol. II(2), London, Secker and Warburg (German original: Berlin 1930-1933).

Newton, Isaac (1968): The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, London, Dawsons.

Newton, Isaac (1952): Opticks, New York, Dover.

Nicolis, Grégoire / Prigogine, Ilya (1987): Die Erforschung des Komplexen. Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Verständnis der Naturwissenschaften, Munich, Piper.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1980): Sämtliche Werke. Kritische Studienausgabe (KSA), Munich, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag and de Gruyter.

Oger, Erik (1991): Einleitung, in: Bergson, 1991, pp. IX-LVII.

Okrent, Mark (1988): Heidegger's Pragmatism, Ithaca (N.Y.), Cornell University Press.

Onsager, Lars (1931): in: Phys. Rev., vol. 37, pp. 405ff and vol. 38, pp. 2265ff.

Ostwald, Wilhelm (1890): Über Autokatalyse, in: Ber. Verh. Kgl. Sächs. Ges. Wiss. Leipzig, Math.- Phys. Classe, 42, pp. 189-191.

Pflug, Günther (1959): Henri Bergson. Quellen und Konsequenzen einer induktiven Metaphysik, Berlin, de Gruyter.

Pieper, Hans-Joachim (1993): Zeitbewußtsein und Zeitlichkeit. Vergleichende Analysen zu Edmund Husserls Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewußtseins und Maurice Merleau- Pontys Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung, Frankfurt a.M., Lang.

Poincaré, Henri (1966a): On the Three-body Problem and the Equations of Dynamics, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 194-203 (originally in: Acta math., vol. 13, 1890, pp. 1-270).

Poincaré, Henri (1966b): Mechanism and Experience, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 203-207 (originally in: Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, vol. 1, 1893, pp. 534-537).

Popper, Karl R. (1992): Boltzmann and the Arrow of Time, in: Popper, Unended Quest. An Intellectual Biography, London, Routledge, pp. 156-162.

Prigogine, Ilya (1945): Modération et transformations irréversibles des systèmes ouverts, in: Académie Royale de Belgique, Bulletin de la Classe des Science, 31, pp. 600ff.

- 125 -

Prigogine, Ilya (1947): Etude thermodynamique des phénomènes irrevérsibles, Paris, Dunod.

Prigogine, Ilya (1973): Time, Irreversibility and Structure, in: Physicist’s Conception of Nature, ed. Jagdish Mehra, Dordrecht/Boston, Reidel.

Prigogine, Ilya (1980): From Being to Becoming. Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences, San Francisco, Freeman.

Prigogine, Ilya (1988): Vom Sein zum Werden. Zeit und Komplexität in den Naturwissenschaften, überarbeitete und erweiterte Neuausgabe, Munich, Piper.

Prigogine, Ilya (1989): Die Wiederentdeckung der Zeit. Naturwissenschaft in einer Welt begrenzter Vorhersagbarkeit, in: Geist und Natur. Über den Widerspruch zwischen naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis und philosophischer Welterfahrung, eds Hans-Peter Dürr and Walther Ch. Zimmerli, Bern/Munich/Vienna, Scherz, S.47-69.

Prigogine, Ilya (1997): The End of Certainty. Time, Chaos, and the New Laws of Nature, New York et al.

Prigogine, Ilya (1998): Die Gesetze des Chaos, Frankfurt a.M., Insel.

Prigogine, Ilya / Defay, R. (1944): Traité de Thermodynamique conformément aux méthodes de Gibbs et de De Donder, 2 vols, Liège, Desoer.

Prigogine, Ilya / Lefever, René (1968): in: Journal of Chemical Physics, 48, pp. 1695ff.

Prigogine, Ilya / Pahaut, Serge (1985): Die Zeit wiederentdecken, in: Zeit, die vierte Dimension in der Kunst, ed. Michel Baudson, Weinheim, VCH, S.23-33.

Prigogine, Ilya / Stengers, Isabelle (1981): Dialog mit der Natur. Neue Wege naturwissenschaftlichen Denkens, Munich, Piper.

Prigogine, Ilya / Stengers, Isabelle (1985): Order out of Chaos. Man’s New Dialogue with Nature, Toronto, New York, London and Sydney, Bantam.

Prigogine, Ilya / Stengers, Isabelle (1988): Entre le temps et l'éternité, Paris, Fayard.

Prigogine, Ilya / Stengers, Isabelle (1990): Entwicklung und Irreversibilität, in: Selbstorganisation. Jahrbuch für Komplexität in den Natur-, Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften, 1, pp. 3-18.

Prigogine, Ilya / Stengers, Isabelle (1993): Das Paradox der Zeit. Zeit, Chaos und Quanten, Munich, Piper.

Prigogine, Ilya / Stengers, Isabelle / Pahaut, Serge (1979): La Dynamique - de Leibniz à Lucrece, in: Critique, no. 380, January 1979, pp. 35-55 [Engl.: Dynamics from Leibniz to Lucretius, in: Michel Serres, Hermes: Literature, Science, Philosophy, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1982, pp. 137- 155].

- 126 -

Proust, Marcel (1960): Remembrance of Things Past, 12 vols, London, Chatto and Windus (French original: Paris 1913-27)

Quételet, Adolphe Lambert Jacques (1835): Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés, ou essai de physique sociale, Paris, Bachelier.

Reichenbach, Hans (1957): The Philosophy of Space and Time, New York, Dover (German original 1928).

Reichenbach, Hans (1971): The Direction of Time, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, University of California Press (first published 1956).

Rinderspacher, Jürgen P. (1985): Gesellschaft ohne Zeit. Individuelle Zeitverwendung und soziale Organisation der Arbeit, Frankfurt, Campus.

Rorty, Richard (1979): Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Rorty, Richard (1984): Heidegger wider die Pragmatisten, in: Neue Hefte für Philosophie, 23, pp. 1- 22.

Rorty, Richard (1989): Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Rorty, Richard (1991): Essays on Heidegger and others, Philosophical Papers, vol. 2, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Rorty, Richard (1994): Hoffnung statt Erkenntnis. Eine Einführung in die pragmatische Philosophie, Vienna, Passagen.

Rorty, Richard (1995): Philosophy and the Future, in: Rorty and Pragmatism, ed. Herman J. Saatkamp, Nashville and London, Vanderbilt University Press.

Sambursky, Shmuel (ed.) (1978): Der Weg der Physik. 2500 Jahre physikalischen Denkens, Munich, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (original: Zurich 1975).

Sandbothe, Mike (1989): Schopenhauers Ästhetik. Traditionalität, Modernität, Postmodernität, in: Schopenhauer in der Postmoderne, ed. Wolfgang Schirmacher, Schopenhauer-Studien, 3, Vienna, Passagen, pp. 157-165.

Sandbothe, Mike (1994): Die Verzeitlichung der Zeit. Grundtendenzen der modernen Zeitphilosophie und die aktuelle Wiederentdeckung der Zeit, in: Glaube und Denken. Jahrbuch der Karl-Heim-Gesellschaft, 7, 108-133.

Sandbothe, Mike (1996): Mediale Zeiten. Zur Veränderung unserer Zeiterfahrung durch die elektronischen Medien, in: Synthetische Welten. Kunst, Künstlichkeit und Kommunikationsmedien, ed. Eckhard Hammel, Essen, Blaue Eule, pp. 133-156.

- 127 -

Sandbothe, Mike (1997): Die Verzeitlichung der Zeit in der modernen Philosophie, in: Gimmler/Sandbothe/Zimmerli, 1997, pp. 41-62.

Sandbothe, Mike (1999): Virtuelle Temporalitäten. Zeit- und identitätsphilosophische Aspekte des Internet, in: Identität und Moderne, eds Alois Hahn and Herbert Willems, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp, S. 332-355.

Sartre, Jean-Paul (1956): Being and Nothingness. An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, New York, Philosophical Library (French original: Paris 1943).

Schnädelbach, Herbert (1983): Philosophie in Deutschland 1831-1933, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1969): The World as Will and Representation, vol. 1, New York, Dover (German original: Leipzig 1819).

Segrè, Emilio (1984): From Falling Bodies to Radio Waves. Classical Physicists and their Discoveries, New York, W.H. Freeman and Co.

Sennett, Richard (1998): The Corrosion of Character : The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism, New York and London, W.W. Norton & Company.

Serres, Michel (1974): Hermes III: La Traduction, Paris, Éditions de Minuit.

Serres, Michel (1975): Introduction, in: Auguste Comte, Philosophie Première, Paris, Hermann, pp. 1-19.

Serres, Michel (1977): Hermes IV: La Distribution, Paris, Éditions de Minuit.

Sherover, Charles M. (1971): Heidegger, Kant, and Time. With an Introduction by William Barrett, Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Sherover, Charles M. (ed.) (1975): The Human Experience of Time: The Development of Its Philosophic Meaning, New York, New York University Press.

Sommerville, Mary (1975): On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences, New York, Arno Press (original: London: 1834)

Stambaugh, Joan (1987): The Problem of Time in Nietzsche, London, Bucknell University Press.

Stegmaier, Werner (1987): Zeit der Vorstellung. Nietzsches Vorstellung der Zeit, in: Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung, 41, pp. 202-228.

Stigler, Stephen M. (1987): The Measurement of Uncertainty in Nineteenth-Century Social Science, in: The Probabilistic Revolution, vol. 1, eds Lorenz Krüger, Lorraine J. Daston, and Michael Heidelberger, Cambridge (Mass.), MIT Press, pp. 287-292.

- 128 -

Szendrei, Eric V. (1989): Bergson, Prigogine and the Rediscovery of Time, in: Process Studies, 18/3, pp. 181-193.

Theunissen, Michael (1970): Hegels Lehre vom absoluten Geist als theologisch-politischer Traktat, Berlin, de Gruyter.

Theunissen, Michael (1991): Negative Theologie der Zeit, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp.

Thomson, William (1882a): An Account of Carnot’s Theory of the Motive Power of Heat; with Numerical Results deduced from Regnault’s Experiments on Steam, in: W. Thomson, Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. 1, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (originally in: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 16, 1849, pp. 541-574).

Thomson, William (1882b): On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy, in: W. Thomson, Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. 1, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 511- 514 (originally in: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, April 1852).

Thomson, William (1914): Über die dynamische Theorie der Wärme mit numerischen Ergebnissen aus Herrn Joules Äquivalent einer thermischen Einheit und Herrn Regnaults Messungen an Dampf, trans. and ed. Walter Block, Leipzig/Berlin, Engelmann, 1914 (original engl.: On the dynamical theory of heat, with numerical results deduced from Mr. Joule's equivalent of a thermal unit, and M. Regnault's observations on steam, Parts I-III, in: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 20, March 1851, pp. 261-268, 289-298).

Thomson, William (1966): The Kinetic Theory of the Dissipation of Energy, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 176-187 [originally in: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. 8, 1874, pp. 325ff].

Truesdell, Clifford A. (1980): The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics 1822-1854, New York, Springer.

Tugendhat, Ernst (1970): Der Wahrheitsbegriff bei Husserl und Heidegger, Berlin, de Gruyter.

Tugendhat, Ernst (1982): Traditional and Analytical Philosophy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (German original: Frankfurt a.M. 1976).

Tugendhat, Ernst (1986): Self-consciousness and self-determination, Cambridge (Mass.), MIT Press.

Tugendhat, Ernst (1992a): Heideggers Seinsfrage, in: Philosophische Aufsätze, Frankfurt a.M., Suhrkamp, pp. 108-135.

Tugendhat, Ernst (1992b): Heidegger und Bergson über die Zeit, in: Das Argument, no. 194, September 1992, pp. 573-584.

Vattimo, Gianni (1988): The End of Modernity, Cambridge, Polity (Italian original: Milan 1985).

- 129 -

Velarde, Manuel G. / Normand, Christiane (1980): Konvektion, in: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. Internationale Ausgabe in deutscher Sprache, September, pp. 119-131.

Wendorff, Rudolf (1985): Zeit und Kultur. Geschichte des Zeitbewußtseins in Europa, 3. Auflage, Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag (original: Opladen 1981)

Wheeler, John Archibald (1979): Frontiers of Time, in: Problems in the Foundations of Physics. Proceedings of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi', Course LXXII, ed. Guiliano Toraldo di Francia, Amsterdam and New York, North Holland, pp. 395-497.

Wieland, Wolfgang (1956): Schellings Lehre von der Zeit. Grundlagen und Voraussetzungen der Weltalterphilosophie, Heidelberg, Winter.

Winfree, Arthur (1987): When Time Breaks Down, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Wohlfart, Günter (1982): Der Augenblick. Zeit und ästhetische Erfahrung bei Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche und Heidegger mit einem Exkurs zu Proust, Freiburg/Munich, Alber.

Zermelo, Ernst (1966a): On a Theorem of Dynamics and the Mechanical Theory of Heat, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 208-217 [originally in: Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 57, 1896, pp. 485-494].

Zermelo, Ernst (1966b): On the Mechanical Explanation of Irreversible Processes, in: Brush, 1966, pp. 229-237 [originally in: Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 59, 1896, pp. 793ff].

Zhabotinsky, Anatol Markovich (1987): Eine periodische Oxydationsreaktion in flüssiger Phase, in: Kuhnert/Niedersen, 1987, pp. 83-89 (original: Moscow 1964).

Zimmerli, Walther Ch. / Sandbothe, Mike (eds) (1993): Klassiker der modernen Zeitphilosophie, Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

1 For a comprehensive bibliography on the subject of time arranged by discipline, see Macey, 1991.

2 I have followed up the influence of electronic media on the scientific concept of time and everyday experience of time in Sandbothe, 1996, 1999. See also Sandbothe/Zimmerli, 1994.

3 There is in general no throughgoing correspondence between the German and English editions of the various works of Prigogine referred to by the author in the present work. Wherever possible I have referred to English versions; where, however, this has not proved possible I translate the German. In the case of Being and Becoming a revised German edition appeared in 1984. This added a new concluding chapter ‘Irreversibility and Space-Time Structure’ – referred to here – to the previous German edition, which had been based on the English edition of 1980. The 1980 English edition has not been similarly revised [trans.].

4 I am grateful to Wolfgang Welsch for pointing out this quote to me.

Nach oben

-- 10.922 Zugriffe auf diesen Text seit dem 08/10/99 --